This report provides information on the scope of implementing solar and bio-energy to provide power for meeting domestic as well as agricultural requirements of the people of Dharampuri in the Jhabua district of Madhya Pradesh. It has been proved through survey that devices such as Solar Water Purifier and Bio-Lamp desk can better meet requirements of the rural population.
Jhabua is a tribal district of Madhya Pradesh where development has been at very slower pace despite all the efforts of several government and non-government bodies. The rural areas of this district still face problem in accessing basic necessities of water, electricity, employment and education. The motive of the project was to study energy problem and to work out solution using renewable sources of energy. The study was conducted in the Dharampuri village under the aegis of Shivganga (a non-government organization based in Jhabua). The survey was conducted to analyze availability of resources mainly electricity, water, cattle, land and human resources. Participation of various government and non-government bodies was also observed by meeting with officials of concerned authorities. Based on these observations, and survey analysis, solutions of the energy and water problem using solar and bio-energy potentials were designed.
There are 70 homes in Dharampuri and 53 out of them are surveyed:
- # of bulbs = 58 and 1 CFL
- # of fans = 13
- # of water motors = 26 (mostly 3 HP & 5HP)
There is mostly one 100 W bulb per house lighted outside the home, dark inside the house. They are still not using energy efficient bulbs due to lack of awareness and traditional practices. Very less number of families have fans. Almost half of them have water motors and these motors are rented by them to other people also. There are 30 motors in the village (survey results) that will irrigate total land. Therefore, one motor will work for approximately 8 hrs per day in Kharif season and 7 Hrs per day in Rabi season.
Water pump = 5HP x 750W x 8Hrs = 3KWHr (1HP = 750W)
Light Bulb = 100 W x 8Hrs = 0.8KWHr
Electric fan = 80W x 8Hrs = 0.64KWHr
Total energy requirement = 4.44KWHr
This is required per farmer. For the entire village of 70 farmers:
- For 30 Electric Motors = 30 x 3 KWHr = 90KWHr
- For 70 Home Lightings = 70 x 0.8 KWHr = 56KWHr
- For 70 Ceiling Fans = 70 x 0.64 KWHr = 44.8 KWHr
Total Energy = 2MW (approximately)
All these calculations are done based on the assumption that there is enough water availability.
Electricity was accessible to almost all of them they mainly have these two arrangements for accessing them.
- Hooking two wires
- Hooking one wire and then applying gadget and then earthing the other end.
In one case there was electricity available but the consumer didn’t put wires so as not to pay bills unlike others and said uses kerosene for lighting the lamp.
In other cases, there was no electricity available as the distribution point transformer malfunctioned but they too hooked the line passing through river side far from home.
Overall observation shows that there was electricity available but in order to avoid billing, people are not having proper connections. But for that illegal connection also, they pay about Rs.1000 per year or it is said as the rent to connect a water pump during irrigation season.
Drinking Water Source
- 40 families use government hand pump
- 8 families dig on river bed for drinking water
- 1 family use well water to drink
- Many families when unable to get hand pump water go to Shivganga Gurukul Tubewell.
There is no water purification before consumption. A lot of water borne diseases happen in the region and most of the time a good treatment is not affordable. This problem can be overcome by using Solar Water Purifier developed by Nimbkar Agricultural Research Institute (NARI).
According to the survey, there are 65 bulls, 24 cows, 66 goats,8 buffaloes, 13 calves. Huge amounts of dung generated from these animals and the crop waste can be used as a bio-fuel for the Bio-Lamp Desk.
Details of Solar Water Purifier and Bio-Lamp Desk are given in following sections. Usage of these alternative sources of energy can reduce the load on domestic lines; the electricity thus saved can be used for irrigation purposes.
Solar Water Purifier
This was developed by an Indian scientist, Dr. Anil Rajvanshi at the Nimbkar Agricultural Research Institute (NARI) from Phaltan, Maharashtra. The technology uses cotton cloth, glass pipes and sunlight. According to Dr. Rajvanshi, the water purifier can both filter the water and kill germs by heating it to 60oC for 15 minutes at a low cost using solar energy. The equipment consists of four tubular solar water heaters attached to a manifold. The unclean water, which is filtered by the cotton cloth, is filled in the Solar Water Purifier and is later heated to make it potable. Unlike other reverse osmosis based water filters, this technology, besides being cheap also doesn’t require any maintenance because of its clogging-free feature.
A lamp was designed based on oxidation-reduction reactions on the metals generating electricity with cow dung as the electrolyte. This was given a shape of desk lamp which can be utilized for various purposes such as dinner table for one person, desk can be used as a platform for domestic purpose of chopping vegetables or preparing ‘chapattis’ on it etc. The raw materials are easily available. This concept can also be used to design a bio-battery charger for mobiles. In the experiment performed a 2.5 V LED was lighted for 10 Hrs. Hence more improved process can light an LED upto 12V. For higher power, the systems can be scaled and electricity can be generated using Bio-gas (Methane).
From the above discussion, following conclusions can be drawn:
- The problems concerned with electricity can be overcome by educating the farmers about the possible drawbacks associated with providing wrong information about the pump-sets as well as with power thefts.
- Creating awareness among the villagers about the vast availability of natural resources for producing energy in an eco-friendly manner reduces their dependence on conventional power sources.
- Devices designed based on alternative sources of energy such as solar and biomass can better meet the energy- requirements of the rural population when developed in full-scale.
Nitin Dhakahd is a final year undergraduate student at IIT Roorkee. He performed an energy audit for this report in 2015.